The originally-Roman Catholic structure was known as the Church of Saint Mary, replacing an older building used for the same purpose.
Construction on it began during the late 14th century, at an unknown date – analysis of related evidence has led several researchers to conclude that work began between 1383 and 1385.
It is known that, in is first stages, the building was serviced by a priest named Thomas (died 1410), whose grave is located in the choir area.
Work on the fortifications in the surrounding area probably began at the same time as work on the church, leading in time to the completion of Brasov’s third citadel.
The naves took longer to complete, and construction was interrupted for various intervals: in 1423, Pope Martin V issued an indulgence for people involved in construction, as a means to reactivate the site; in 1474, a document issued by Sixtus IV acknowledged that work was still lagging.
Several octagonal pillars, redesigned at least once during the building process, were probably completed around 1444.
One of them features the inlaid crest of military leader John Hunyadi, who is mentioned among the church benefactors.
The most intense work took place before and after 1450, and involved completing the exceptionally large number of portals, including the northern “Golden Gate” and its adjacent altar of the Holy Sacrifice.
The eastern portal, commissioned by the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, was completed in 1476.
The vestry was enlarged at some point between 1500 and 1515.